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Attributional Style
 
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Stress
Views: 605 tom nickel
Attribution Theory
 
03:06
Views: 88781 Lauren Reichert
Attribution Theory - Basic covariation | Individuals and Society | MCAT | Khan Academy
 
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Created by Arshya Vahabzadeh. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/individuals-and-society/perception-prejudice-and-bias/v/attribution-theory-attribution-error-and-culture?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/individuals-and-society/self-identity/v/charles-cooley-looking-glass-self?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s MCAT channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDkK5wqSuwDlJ3_nl3rgdiQ?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 96779 khanacademymedicine
Understanding Attribution Bias
 
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The brain takes shortcuts in evaluating our own and others' behaviors in a process called "attribution bias." Watch how common biases can occur in the workplace. This video was created by the GoAnimate Head of Product to train his team. Create your own video: http://gnmt.co/2h5bcMh
Views: 23993 Vyond
What is EXPLANATORY STYLE? What does EXPLANATORY STYLE mean? EXPLANATORY STYLE meaning
 
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What is EXPLANATORY STYLE? What does EXPLANATORY STYLE mean? EXPLANATORY STYLE meaning - EXPLANATORY STYLE definition - EXPLANATORY STYLE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Explanatory style is a psychological attribute that indicates how people explain to themselves why they experience a particular event, either positive or negative. People who generally tend to blame themselves for negative events, believe that such events will continue indefinitely, and let such events affect many aspects of their lives display what is called a pessimistic explanatory style. Conversely, people who generally tend to blame outside forces for negative events, believe that such events will end soon, and do not let such events affect too many aspects of their lives display what is called an optimistic explanatory style. Some research has suggested a pessimistic explanatory style may be correlated with depression and physical illness. The concept of explanatory style encompasses a wide range of possible responses to both positive and negative occurrences, rather than a black-white difference between optimism and pessimism. Also, an individual does not necessarily show a uniform explanatory style in all aspects of life, but may exhibit varying responses to different types of events. Attributional style emerged from research on depression, with Abramson et al. arguing that a characteristic way of attributing negative outcomes – to internal, stable and global causes – would be associated with depression in response to negative events happened to them. As a diathesis–stress model of depression, the model does not predict associations of attributional style with depression in the absence of objective negative events (stressors). A meta-analysis of 104 empirical studies of the theory indicates that the predictions are supported. Data have, however, been ambiguous, and some researchers believe that the theory is well-supported, some believe that it has not had impressive empirical support and some believe that, at least in the early days of the theory, the theory was never adequately tested. One factor accounting for ambiguity in research into the model is whether researchers have assessed attributions for hypothetical events or for real events. Interestingly, those studies that have looked at attributions for hypothetical events have been more supportive of the model, possibly because these studies are more likely to have controlled for event severity. The "learned helplessness" model formed the theoretical basis of the original Abramson, Seligman, and Teasdale statement on attributional style,. More recently, Abramson, Metalsky and Alloy proposed a modified "hopelessness theory". This distinguished hopeless depression and more circumscribed pessimism. It emphasizes the dimensions of stability and globality rather than internality, and suggests that stable and global attributions (rather than internal cause attributions) are associated with hopelessness depression. Hopelessness theory also highlights perceived importance and consequences of a negative outcome in addition to causal attributions as factors in clinical depression. Developmentally, it has been suggested that attributional style originates in experiences of trust or lack of trust in events Along with evidence from twin studies for some heredity basis to attributional style., Eisner argues that repeated exposure to controllable events may foster an optimistic explanatory style, whereas repeated exposure to uncontrollable events may foster a negative attributional style. Trust in interpersonal relationships is argued to build an optimistic explanatory style.
Views: 660 The Audiopedia
Optimistic vs. Pessimistic Explanatory Styles
 
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*Video re-created using SnippingTools to capture screen shots. Then, images were uploaded and combined using MovieMaker. Reason being to SLOW DOWN information for reading purposes, and add in more examples for students' notes. *Original video created by Samantha Schwartz based on articles. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFWxCjYNtZIvae-oZQkoc1Q *Music found on Free Music Archive (freemusicarchive.org)
Views: 2585 Jessa Yager
attributional style  / پویان مقدم /سبک های اسنادی
 
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سبک های اسنادی و تاثیر آنها در تحلیل شکست ها و موفقیت ها. پویان مقدم: روان درمانگر و مشاور
Views: 10 Pouyan Moghaddam
Explanatory Styles, Learned Helplessness, and Learned Optimism
 
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In this video, I cover different roadblocks to happiness. Including: the two types of explanatory styles and Learned Helplessness. I also cover a way to possibly break down those barriers: learned optimism. I hope you enjoy the video. My next Video will cover the PERMA model of happiness. Let me know how you feel about this video: Comment, like, and subscribe! Thank you Transcript: ______________________________________________________________ Hey, everyone, Last time we covered flow. Today we are going to look into some potential roadblocks into happiness. I want you to imagine this situation: You are attracted to this dudeman or lady girl, and you finally get the courage to ask them out. Unfortunately for you, they politely reject you. There are two ways you can explain their response. These are, unsurprisingly called explanatory styles. There is a pessimistic one and an optimistic one.These explanations are easily broken down into three categories. Personal vs. impersonal. Permanent vs. inpermanent, and pervasive (global) vs. specific (local). The pessimist way explains it is that is your fault they said no. You also think that you will always get rejected by everyone. The optimistic way to explain it is that the person just didn't reciprocate your feelings, but that in the future someone will reciprocate. The pessimistic style can cause depression, but it is also a roadblock to happiness. There is another roadblock called Learned helplessness. Learned helplessness is a behavior where a human or nonhuman endures repeatedly aversive stimuli that it cant escape or avoid. Think back to the rejection scenario. If this happened repeatedly, over time, you may decide to avoid asking anyone out ever again. There was a sad experiment involving dogs exploring this phenomenon. They were attached to a collar that would shock them at random times. One group of dogs could control it through a lever, the other however was unable to control the shocks at all. Afterwards, the dogs were put into a separate apparatus, a box where the floor would shock on one side or the other. The first group of dogs learned quickly to escape by jumping to the other side. The second group sadly lied down and endured the shocks without trying to go to the other side. The only thing that could get these dogs to the other side was physically moving them to the other side. It has been suggested that learned helplessness can be a precedent for creating a pessimistic learning style. So, how might one change the effects of past learning? Cognitive Behavioral Therapy would be good for both of these situations since it would work on both the explanatory style and possible behavior ramifications from learning helplessness. There's also the possibility of Learning optimism. Martin Seligman uses an adaptation of Rational Emotive therapy to do this. (ABCDE) You have an adversity, such as being cut off in traffic, and a belief about it such as "I cant believe he was so rude and selfish." and the Consequence, you are overcome with anger. Then, he suggests, you have to try and dispute your beliefs: maybe you are overreacting and its pointless to worry about being cut off. Maybe someone died, and he's in a hurry to the hospital. Basically, do your beliefs have evidence or other explanations. What are the implications if you hold on to these beliefs? Are the beliefs useful to you if you hold on to them? Finally, How could you be energized by using more optimistic beliefs or explanations? More or less what are some good outcomes if you believe optimistically. For example, if I change my beliefs about being cut off, I won't be angry, If I'm not angry as often, I lessen my chance of a stress induced heart attack and cardiovascular disease. Alright, so we covered explanatory styles, learned helplessness, and learned optimism. Next time we will look into one of Martin Seligman's models of happiness and well-being. I hope you guys enjoyed this video. I would like you guys to see if you can identify an aversive situation in your lives and map it out in that ABCDE format. Thanks for being you. Do me a favor and have a nice day! youtility
Views: 669 Youtility
Attributional Processes: Attributing Behavior – Psychology & Sociology | Lecturio
 
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This video “Attributional Processes: Attributing Behavior ” is part of the Lecturio course “Psychology & Sociology” ► WATCH the complete course on http://lectur.io/attrproc ► LEARN ABOUT: - Attribution theory - Internal and external causes - Consistency - Distinctiveness - Consensus - Fundamental Attribution Error - Bias and the halo effect ► THE PROF: Dr. Tarry Ahuja is currently a senior medical real-world evidence scientist for a major pharmaceutical company and a lecturer at Carleton University, Canada. He has worked in the hospital setting and National Research Council of Canada for over 10 years. ► LECTURIO is your single-point resource for medical school: Study for your classes, USMLE Step 1, USMLE Step 2, MCAT or MBBS with video lectures by world-class professors, recall & USMLE-style questions and textbook articles. Create your free account now: http://lectur.io/attrproc ► INSTALL our free Lecturio app iTunes Store: https://app.adjust.com/z21zrf Play Store: https://app.adjust.com/b01fak ► READ TEXTBOOK ARTICLES related to this video: Attribution Theory http://lectur.io/attributionarticle ► SUBSCRIBE to our YouTube channel: http://lectur.io/subscribe ► WATCH MORE ON YOUTUBE: http://lectur.io/playlists ► LET’S CONNECT: • Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lecturio.medical.education.videos • Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lecturio_medical_videos • Twitter: https://twitter.com/LecturioMed
Do You Know Your Attributional Style? - Courtney Clark
 
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Courtney explains how your attributional style determines how well you'll cope under pressure. For more resilience-building tips, visit www.CourtneyLClark.com
Views: 230 Courtney Clark
What is DISPOSITIONAL ATTRIBUTION? What does DISPOSITIONAL ATTRIBUTION mean?
 
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What is DISPOSITIONAL ATTRIBUTION? What does DISPOSITIONAL ATTRIBUTION mean? DISPOSITIONAL ATTRIBUTION meaning - DISPOSITIONAL ATTRIBUTION definition - DISPOSITIONAL ATTRIBUTION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Dispositional attribution is the explanation of individual behavior as a result caused by internal characteristics that reside within the individual, as opposed to external (situational) influences that stem from the environment or culture in which that individual is found. Dispositionalism is the general tendency to prefer dispositional attribution rather than situational attribution. Another term for dispositional attribution is internal attribution. Internal attribution refers to inferring that personal factors are the cause of an event or behavior. Attributions refer to influences that you make regarding what caused an event or behavior and they are your attempt at understanding your experiences, behaviors, and the behaviors of others. When we use internal attributions, we infer that a person is behaving in a certain way or that an event is due to factors related to the person. Internal attribution is defined as the act of placing blame on some type of factor or criteria that could be controlled by an individual for the cause of a certain event. When making an internal attribution, we infer that an event or a person's behavior directly correlates to personal factors such as traits, abilities, or feelings. A simplified example of this can be shown when a woman is paying for her groceries at the cash register. When a cashier is short with her at the grocery store, the woman decides he must be a rude and crabby person all the time. Internal attribution is how we attach meaning to other's behaviors and even our own. For example, dispositional optimism is a tendency that applies generally across situations, but situational optimism is having hope and expecting a good outcome in a specific situation.
Views: 3705 The Audiopedia
Attributional Retraining
 
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EDPE 636 Class
Views: 823 corrymmegill
Attributions
 
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How and why we use attributions
Views: 30 Georgie Orr
Optimistic Explanatory Style
 
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This video is based on the following empirical articles: Ben-Zur, H. (2003). Happy adolescents: The link between subjective well-being, internal resources, and parental factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32(2), 67-79. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021864432505 Brewin, C. R., & Andrews, B. (1996). Intergenerational links and positive self-cognitions: Parental correlates of optimism, learned resourcefulness, and self-evaluation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 20(3), 247-263. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/618794521?accountid=7379 Brissette, I., Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (2002). The role of optimism in social network development, coping, and psychological adjustment during a life transition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(1), 102-111. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.82.1.102 Caprara, G. V., Fagnani, C., Alessandri, G., Steca, P., Gigantesco, A., Sforza, L. L. C., & Stazi, M. A. (2009). Human optimal functioning: The genetics of positive orientation towards self, life, and the future. Behavior Genetics, 39(3), 277-284. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10519-009-9267-y Daukantaite, D., & Bergman, L. R. (2005). Childhood roots of women's subjective well-being: The role of optimism. European Psychologist, 10(4), 287-297. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040.10.4.287 Daukantait, D., & Zukauskiene, R. (2012). Optimism and subjective well-being: Affectivity plays a secondary role in the relationship between optimism and global life satisfaction in the middle-aged women. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13(1), 1-16. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10902-010-9246-2 Ek, E., Remes, J., & Sovio, U. (2004). Social and developmental predictors of optimism from infancy to early adulthood. Social Indicators Research, 69(2), 219-242. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:SOCI.0000033591.80716.07 Fischer, R., & Chalmers, A. (2008). Is optimism universal? A meta-analytical investigation of optimism levels across 22 nations. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(5), 378-382. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.05.008 Geers, A. L., Reilley, S. P., & Dember, W. N. (1998). Optimism, pessimism, and friendship. Current Psychology, 17(1), 3-19. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-998-1017-4 Hjelle, L. A., Busch, E. A., & Warren, J. E. (1996). Explanatory style, dispositional optimism, and reported parental behavior. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 157(4), 489-499. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/228521923?accountid=7379 Korkeila, K., Kivelä, S., Suominen, S., Vahtera, J., Kivimäki, M., Sundell, J., . . . Koskenvuo, M. (2004). Childhood adversities, parent-child relationships and dispositional optimism in adulthood. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39(4), 286-92. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-004-0740-x Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Girgus, J. S., & Seligman, M. E. (1992). Predictors and consequences of childhood depressive symptoms: A 5-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101(3), 405-422. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.101.3.405 Peterson, C., Seligman, M., & Vaillant, G. (1988). Pessimistic explanatory style is a risk factor for physical illness: A 35-year longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 23--27. Seligman, M., Abramson, L., Semmel, A., & Von Baeyer, C. (1984). Depressive attributional style. Southern Psychologist, 2, 18--22. Seligman, M. E. P., Castellon, C., Cacciola, J., Schulman, P., Luborsky, L., Ollove, M., & Downing, R. (1988). Explanatory style change during cognitive therapy for unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97(1), 13-18. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.97.1.13
Views: 2800 Samantha Schwartz
AP Pysch Attributional Theory
 
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New Project
Views: 108 Ryan Froom
Resilience Speaker Courtney Clark Explains Why Sometimes EVERYTHING Feels Like it Goes Wrong at Once
 
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When it feels like the whole world is against you, your attributional style may be to blame. Courtney shows you how it happens and how you can fix it. For more resilience-building tips, visit www.CourtneyLClark.com
Views: 114 Courtney Clark
Psych 340 - Explanatory Style
 
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Social Psychology in the Clinic
Views: 359 lindsey7373
How to Help Your Athlete Apply Attribution Theory
 
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RECEIVE THESE VIDEOS IN YOUR INBOX EVERY MONDAY BY SUBSCRIBING HERE: http://eepurl.com/bTTqWb Attribution theory investigates where athletes attribute their failures and successes. While it should never be construed as a method for externalizing fault or avoiding responsibility, attribution theory does play a big role in how athletes build confidence and move on after failure.
Views: 138 ZGiRLS
Attribution Theory of Bernard Weiner
 
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-- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/ . Make your own animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowToon's animation templates help you create animated presentations and animated explainer videos from scratch. Anyone can produce awesome animations quickly with PowToon, without the cost or hassle other professional animation services require.
Views: 34187 Denzel Macaraig
Explanatory Style
 
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Learn how your thinking habits can affect your ability to bounce back from stressful circumstances.
Views: 4244 ReachINReachOUT
Optimistic Explanatory Style in Action
 
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This video is based on the following empirical articles: Ben-Zur, H. (2003). Happy adolescents: The link between subjective well-being, internal resources, and parental factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32(2), 67-79. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:102186443... Brewin, C. R., & Andrews, B. (1996). Intergenerational links and positive self-cognitions: Parental correlates of optimism, learned resourcefulness, and self-evaluation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 20(3), 247-263. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/61... Brissette, I., Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (2002). The role of optimism in social network development, coping, and psychological adjustment during a life transition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(1), 102-111. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.8... Caprara, G. V., Fagnani, C., Alessandri, G., Steca, P., Gigantesco, A., Sforza, L. L. C., & Stazi, M. A. (2009). Human optimal functioning: The genetics of positive orientation towards self, life, and the future. Behavior Genetics, 39(3), 277-284. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10519-009-... Daukantaite, D., & Bergman, L. R. (2005). Childhood roots of women's subjective well-being: The role of optimism. European Psychologist, 10(4), 287-297. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040.1... Daukantait, D., & Zukauskiene, R. (2012). Optimism and subjective well-being: Affectivity plays a secondary role in the relationship between optimism and global life satisfaction in the middle-aged women. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13(1), 1-16. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10902-010-... Ek, E., Remes, J., & Sovio, U. (2004). Social and developmental predictors of optimism from infancy to early adulthood. Social Indicators Research, 69(2), 219-242. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:SOCI.0000... Fischer, R., & Chalmers, A. (2008). Is optimism universal? A meta-analytical investigation of optimism levels across 22 nations. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(5), 378-382. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008... Geers, A. L., Reilley, S. P., & Dember, W. N. (1998). Optimism, pessimism, and friendship. Current Psychology, 17(1), 3-19. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-998-... Hjelle, L. A., Busch, E. A., & Warren, J. E. (1996). Explanatory style, dispositional optimism, and reported parental behavior. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 157(4), 489-499. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/22... Korkeila, K., Kivelä, S., Suominen, S., Vahtera, J., Kivimäki, M., Sundell, J., . . . Koskenvuo, M. (2004). Childhood adversities, parent-child relationships and dispositional optimism in adulthood. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39(4), 286-92. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-004-... Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Girgus, J. S., & Seligman, M. E. (1992). Predictors and consequences of childhood depressive symptoms: A 5-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101(3), 405-422. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.1... Peterson, C., Seligman, M., & Vaillant, G. (1988). Pessimistic explanatory style is a risk factor for physical illness: A 35-year longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 23--27. Seligman, M., Abramson, L., Semmel, A., & Von Baeyer, C. (1984). Depressive attributional style. Southern Psychologist, 2, 18--22. Seligman, M. E. P., Castellon, C., Cacciola, J., Schulman, P., Luborsky, L., Ollove, M., & Downing, R. (1988). Explanatory style change during cognitive therapy for unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97(1), 13-18. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.9...
Views: 658 Samantha Schwartz
Explanatory style - How your beliefs effect Depression and Anxiety
 
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Article 1: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11469-015-9570-1 Article 2 : http://www.artofmanliness.com/2010/02/03/boosting-your-resiliency-part-2-avoiding-learned-helplessness-and-changing-your-explanatory-style/ Martin Seligman: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1400078393?ie=UTF8&tag=stucosuccess-20&linkCode=as2&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1400078393
Views: 133 Mind Unlimited
Attributional Retraining - Lincoln University of Missouri
 
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This video was made for research on attributional retraining in higher education.
Views: 1367 chipgubera1
Attribution Theory
 
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My educational psychology Prezi with recording.
Views: 3204 mlbook09
Explanatory Style (Choices)
 
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In this video I talk about explanatory styles, how they different, and what comprises them.
Views: 809 Hapacus
On Using Situational and Dispositional Attributions to Feel Better - Quick Thought #290
 
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http://www.optimisticwellness.com In this video, I talk about the difference between situational and dispositional attributions, and how they can improve your well-being.
Views: 461 J Lipovetsky
The new era of positive psychology – Martin Seligman 2004
 
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Martin Seligman talks about psychology – as a field of study and as it works one-on-one with each patient and each practitioner. As it moves beyond a focus on disease, what can modern psychology help us to become? Filmed February 2004 Martin Seligman is the founder of positive psychology, a field of study that examines healthy states, such as happiness, strength of character and optimism. Martin Seligman founded the field of positive psychology in 2000, and has devoted his career since then to furthering the study of positive emotion, positive character traits, and positive institutions. It's a fascinating field of study that had few empirical, scientific measures – traditional clinical psychology focusing more on the repair of unhappy states than the propagation and nurturing of happy ones. In his pioneering work, Seligman directs the Positive Psychology Center at the University of Pennsylvania, developing clinical tools and training the next generation of positive psychologists. His earlier work focused on perhaps the opposite state: learned helplessness, in which a person feels he or she is powerless to change a situation that is, in fact, changeable. Seligman is an often-cited authority in this field as well – in fact, his is the 13th most likely name to pop up in a general psych textbook. He was the leading consultant on a Consumer Reports study on long-term psychotherapy, and has developed several common pre-employment tests, including the Seligman Attributional Style Questionnaire (SASQ).
Views: 147 Dr Suzy Green
Road To Success - Powerful Motivation 2016
 
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IF You wana realy to success in your life juste be : ABLE, ACCEPT – ACCEPTANCE – ACCEPTABLE – ACCEPTED – ACCEPTING, ACTION, ACTIVATE, ACTIVE, ADD, ADDITION, ADORABLE, ADVANTAGE, AFFIRM, AGELESS, AGREE, AGREEABLE, AID, AIM, ABUNDANCE, ACCOUNTABILITY, ACCOMPLISHMENT – ACCOMPLISH, ACCURACY, ACHIEVEMENT – ACHIEVE, ACKNOWLEDGEMENT, ADAPTABILITY, ADVENTURE – ADVENTUROUS, AGILITY, ALERTNESS, AMBITION, ANTICIPATION, APPRECIATE – APPRECIATION – APPRECIATIVE – APPRECIATIVENESS, ASSERTIVENESS – ASSERTIVE, ATTENTIVENESS, AUDACITY, AWARE – AWARENESS, AUTHENTIC – AUTHENTICITY, ABRACADABRA, ATTRACTION, ALLOW – ALLOWING, AFFECTION – AFFECTIONATE, ABSORBED, ALERT, AMAZED, AWE – AWED, ANIMATE – ANIMATED – ANIMATING – ANIMATION – ANIMATENESS, ARDENT, AMAZING, AWESOME – AWESOMENESS, AROUSED, ASTONISHED – ASTONISHING, AMUSED, AIR – AIRNESS, ALOHA, ADORE, ADMIRE, ADMIRABLE, ALLURE, ANGEL – ANGELIC, ALTRUISM – ALTRUISTIC, ABOUND – ABOUNDING – ABOUNDS- ABUNDANT, ABSOLUTE – ABSOLUTELY, ACCESSIBLE, ACCLAIMED, ACCOMMODATE – ACCOMMODATED – ACCOMMODATION – ACCOMMODATING, AMPLE, APPRECIATIVE JOY, AMIN, ACCENTUACTIVITY, ACTABILITY, AFFABLE, ALACRITY, ALTRUCAUSE, AMIABLE, ASTOUNDING, ATTRACTIVE, ALIVE – ALIVENESS, ACCLAIM, ABUNDANT GRATIFICATION, ACCLAMATION, ACCOMPLISHED, ACCOMPLISHMENTS, ACCURATE, ACCURATELY, ACHIEVABLE, ACHIEVEMENTS, ACTION FOR HAPPINESS, ACTIVE AND CONSTRUCTIVE STEPS, ACTS OF KINDNESS, ADAPTABLE, ADAPTIVE, ADEQUATE, ADMIRABLY, ADMIRATION, ADMIRED, ADORED, ADORING, ADORINGLY, ADVANCED, ADVANTAGEOUS, ADVANTAGEOUSLY, ADVANTAGES, AFFABILITY, AFFABLY, AFFINITY, AFFIRMATION, AFFIRMATIVE, AFFLUENCE, AFFLUENT, AFFORD, AFFORDABLE, AFFORDABLY, AGILE, AGILELY, AGREEABLENESS, AGREEABLY, ALIGNED, ALL IS WELL, ALLURING, ALLURINGLY, ALTERNATIVE HEALING, ALTRUISTICALLY, AMAZE, AMAZEMENT, AMAZES, AMAZINGLY, AMIABILITY, AMICABILITY, AMICABLE, AMICABLY, AMUSING, APPEAL, APPEALING, APPLAUD, APPRECIABLE, APPRECIATED, APPRECIATES, APPRECIATION OF BEAUTY, APPRECIATIVELY, APPROPRIATE, APPROVAL, APPROVE, ARDOR, ART OF APPRECIATION, ART OF STILLNESS, ART OF WELL-BEING, ASSURANCE, A REASON FOR BEING, ACARONAR, ACCOMMODATIVE, ALTITUDINARIAN, AMAZING WORDS, AMIABLY, ACCOLADE, ACUMEN, ADJUSTABLE, ADMIRER, ADMIRING, ADMIRINGLY, ADORER, ADROIT, ADROITLY, ADULATED, ADULATION, ADULATORY, ADVENTURESOME, ADVOCATED, AMBITIOUS, AMBITIOUSLY, AMELIORATE, AMENITY, AMITY, AMPLY, AMUSE, AMUSINGLY, APOTHEOSIS, ASSUME YOUR OWN VALUE, ASTONISHINGLY, ASTONISHMENT, ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE QUESTIONNAIRE (ASQ), AUTHENTIC HAPPINESS, AWAKEN, AWAKENING... Follow me on facebook : https://www.facebook.com/hamza.boussif.92
Views: 466 abdenebi ahayoun
Mach4Minute - Explanatory Style
 
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Mach4Minute - Explanatory Style
Views: 42 Mach4System
Credit Card Debt - Attributional Retraining
 
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Description of how attributional retraining affects consumers’ willingness to take on credit card debt. Research conducted by Dr. Mohammed El Hazzouri, Mount Royal University and Dr. Kelley Main, University of Manitoba. Video credits: Alexandra Camelo Rosas & Victoria Stay.
Views: 104 Melhazzouri
ATTRIBUTION MEANING IN ENGLISH
 
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This video lists out meaning of difficult English word ATTRIBUTION with sentence. Also please go through my playlist "ENGLISH DICTIONARY" for meanings of more difficult words. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL3TK4S65dpTrDoskU3fNuWJdMS-2zEiP3 ★☆★☆★☆★☆★☆★☆★☆★☆★☆★☆★☆★☆★☆★☆★ Subscribe to my 🎥 #YouTube Channel 👉 https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCv9F8WkXROOW-mss9o7PqDw ★☆★ Connect with me on Social Media ♦️ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/knock2kya/ ♦️ Twitter: https://twitter.com/knock2kya ♦️ Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/knock2kya/ ♦️ LinkedIN: https://www.linkedin.com/in/knock2kya/
Views: 60 TheKrazzyTuber
UQx PSYC1030.1x 1-4-4 Motivation and attributional biases
 
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Introduction to Social Psychology We often have firmly held beliefs about why people think and behave the way they do. Sometimes our intuitions are correct, but often they are not. Social psychology helps us understand how people think about themselves and other people and what motivates their behaviour in social settings. This course explores a range of topics in social psychology, from how we think about ourselves, how we think about others, and how we interact and communicate with others. We will also discuss the ways that we can influence others and be influenced by others. Finally, we look at some problematic aspects of human behaviour, such as prejudice and aggression. You should take this course if you are curious about why we behave the way we do. For more information on this course please visit: https://www.edx.org/xseries/introduction-developmental-social For more information on other courses from UQx please visit: https://www.edx.org/school/uqx
علّمني العجز Learned Helplessness | ريبلز#112
 
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كيف تتسلل مشاعر العجز إلى قلوبنا وأنفسنا لتسيطر على تصرفاتنا؟ ظاهرة العجز المتعلم ال learned Helplessness رصدها علم النفس وقد تفسّر ما يحدث مع الكثير منّا في نواحي مختلفة من حياتنا عندما تغلبنا مشاعر اليأس والإحباط النفسي 👈 إن قدّم لك الفيديو فائدة، بإمكانك دعم ريبلز على باتريون To support Ripples on Patreon: https://goo.gl/Zi1AWR أو على بي-بال هنا or via PayPal: https://www.paypal.me/RipplesQM بحث\كتابة وتقديم : جابر حسون | Written & Presented by: Jaber Hassoun تجربة مارتن سليجمان على الكلاب - عجز متعلم شاهد فديوهات أكثر عن مجال مارتن سليجمان علم النفس الايجابي هنا: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLREYADhMqC4S0LDKtFHQTFQQDGj5j4Obn مصادر sources: Maier, S. F. & Seligman, M. E. P. Learned Helplessness: Theory and Evidence, Journal ol Experimental Psychology Seligman, M. E. P. & Hiroto, D. S. Generality of Learned Helplessness in Man, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Dweck, C. S. The Role of Expectations and Attributions in the Alleviation of Learned Helplessness, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Welbourne J.L. et al. Coping strategies in the workplace: Relationships with attributional style and job satisfaction, Journal of Vocational Behavior #ريبلز #ripples
Views: 3485 Ripples
TMB Episode 31   Attribution Theory
 
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How do you explain it when you are depressed? What do you believe causes your anxiety? Why does your child break the rules despite you telling him dozens of times to follow the rules? The way we attempt to understand our behaviors and emotions is called Attribution Theory. Do you attribute your depression to factors you can control or do you blame outside forces for your feelings? Do you believe that your child misbehaves because he has ADHD or because he does not have the ability to meet your expectations? Your attribution style will influence how difficult (or easy) it will be for you to overcome the symptoms. In this podcast we discuss the best way for you to understand these issues and find ways to cope with your symptoms. Follow us on Twitter (@drberney) and Facebook (/drberney). If you listen on iTunes, please leave us a review to help others find us and join in on the conversation!
PSY 340 Attributions
 
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Views: 471 jdubj115
The Relationship Between Competition Anxiety and Sport Performance
 
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Renee DuChene Amira Hegazi Jacob Ouellette Gardner, L., Vella, S., & Magee, C. (2015). The Relationship Between Implicit Beliefs, Anxiety, and Attributional Style in High-Level Soccer Players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 27(4), 398-411. doi:10.1080/10413200.2015.1019681 ____________________________________________________________________ This video is for educational purposes only. No copyright infringement intended/this video is meant for informational and educational purposes only.
Views: 355 Renee DuChene
How Explanatory Style Affects Optimism (Choices)
 
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In this video we finish talking about explanatory styles and how we can maximize our happiness by analyzing them.
Views: 389 Hapacus
What is COGNITIVE MISER? What does COGNITIVE MISER mean? COGNITIVE MISER meaning & explanation
 
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What is COGNITIVE MISER? What does COGNITIVE MISER mean? COGNITIVE MISER meaning -COGNITIVE MISER definition - COGNITIVE MISER explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. In psychology, the human mind is considered to be a cognitive miser due to the tendency of humans to think and solve problems in simpler and less effortful ways rather than in more sophisticated and more effortful ways, regardless of intelligence. Just as a miser seeks to avoid spending money, the human mind often seeks to avoid spending computational effort. The cognitive miser theory is an umbrella theory of cognition that brings together previous research on heuristics and attributional biases to explain how and why people are cognitive misers. The term cognitive miser was first introduced by Susan Fiske and Shelley Taylor in 1984. It is an important concept in social cognition theory and has been influential in other social sciences including but not exclusive to economics and political science. Before Fiske and Taylor's cognitive miser theory, the predominant model of social cognition was the naive scientist. First proposed in 1958 by Fritz Heider in The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations, this theory holds that humans think and act with dispassionate rationality whilst engaging in detailed and nuanced thought processes for both complex and routine actions. In this way, humans were thought to think like scientists, albeit naive ones, measuring and analyzing the world around them. Applying this framework to human thought processes, naive scientists seek the consistency and stability that comes from a coherent view of the world and need for environmental control. In order to meet these needs, naive scientists make attributions. Thus, attribution theory emerged from the study of the ways in which individuals assess causal relationships and mechanisms. Through the study of causal attributions, led by Harold Kelley and Bernard Weiner amongst others, social psychologists began to observe that subjects regularly demonstrate several attributional biases including but not limited to the fundamental attribution error. The study of attributions had two effects: it created further interest in testing the naive scientist and opened up a new wave of social psychology research that questioned its explanatory power. This second effect helped to lay the foundation for Fiske and Taylor's cognitive miser. Much of the cognitive miser theory is built upon work done on heuristics in judgment and decision-making, most notably Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman results published in a series of influential articles. Heuristics can be defined as the "judgmental shortcuts that generally get us where we need to go—and quickly—but at the cost of occasionally sending us off course." In their work, Kahneman and Tversky demonstrated that people rely upon different types of heuristics or mental short cuts in order to save time and mental energy.
Views: 3668 The Audiopedia
Mind Set
 
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MindSet - self-improvement pervasive game based on positive psychology that improves attributional style
Views: 22 Maciej Matouszek
What is LEARNED OPTIMISM? What does LEARNED OPTIMISM mean? LEARNED OPTIMISM meaning
 
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What is LEARNED OPTIMISM? What does LEARNED OPTIMISM mean? LEARNED OPTIMISM meaning - LEARNED OPTIMISM definition - LEARNED OPTIMISM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Learned optimism is the idea in positive psychology that a talent for joy, like any other, can be cultivated. It is contrasted with learned helplessness. Learning optimism is done by consciously challenging any negative self talk. Learned optimism was defined by Martin Seligman and published in his 1990 book, Learned Optimism. The benefits of an optimistic outlook are many: Optimists are higher achievers and have better overall health. Pessimism, on the other hand, is much more common; pessimists are more likely to give up in the face of adversity or to suffer from depression. Seligman invites pessimists to learn to be optimists by thinking about their reactions to adversity in a new way. The resulting optimism—one that grew from pessimism—is a learned optimism. The optimist's outlook on failure can thus be summarized as "What happened was an unlucky situation (not personal), and really just a setback (not permanent) for this one, of many, goals (not pervasive)". Other differences exist between pessimists and optimists in terms of explanatory style: Permanence: Optimistic people believe bad events to be more temporary than permanent and bounce back quickly from failure, whereas others may take longer periods to recover or may never recover. They also believe good things happen for reasons that are permanent, rather than seeing the transient nature of positive events. Optimists point to specific temporary causes for negative events; pessimists point to permanent causes. Pervasiveness: Optimistic people compartmentalize helplessness, whereas pessimistic people assume that failure in one area of life means failure in life as a whole. Optimistic people also allow good events to brighten every area of their lives rather than just the particular area in which the event occurred. Personalization: Optimists blame bad events on causes outside of themselves, whereas pessimists blame themselves for events that occur. Optimists are therefore generally more confident. Optimists also quickly internalize positive events while pessimists externalize them. Martin Seligman's learned optimism now orients the U.S. armed services' psychological stance. Keith Ablow blamed this in part for the actions of the U.S. soldier accused of killing 16 civilians in Afghanistan. He wrote that soldiers are "taught to deny stress and trauma, and false bravado is actually encouraged, under the banner of 'resilience.' It's a bad, bad idea that pushes soldiers to 'fake good' until they fall apart. And, then, the system continues to withhold needed care, particularly of a psychotherapeutic, insight-oriented variety." If learnable, optimism techniques could be practical in life. They are used today in many areas such as parenting, business, therapy, and education. Business would benefit from more optimistic workers, as they are more successful. Seligman's focus in business is on "the personal wall" that is each individual worker's set-point of discouragement. Putting the ABCDE model into practice attempts to allow workers to respond to this "wall" with a readiness to conquer rather than to feel dejected. The Attributional Style Questionnaire is often used to measure optimism of job candidates during the interview process by asking the participant to write down causes for situational failures. Participants attributions may be used to help understand if the candidate will be a high or low performer in his/her projected role based on his level of optimism. Learned optimism has been used to combat depression during cognitive behavioral therapy.. This is based on the idea that patients may be depressed in part because they have a pessimistic outlook. Rather than perceiving adversity as a constant thing that cannot be overcome, and taking personal blame for that adversity, patients come out of cognitive behavioral therapy with the belief that they can control how they respond to adversity. A shift toward optimism is a shift away from depression.
Views: 625 The Audiopedia
Soc 319: Sociological Approaches to Social Psychology
 
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TO USE OR PRINT this presentation click : http://videosliders.com/r/455 ============================================================== Soc 319: Sociological Approaches to Social Psychology Thursday February 26, 2009 Attribution Theory (cont’d) & Attitudes ,I. Attribution Theory What is It? 1. Naïve scientist http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ImCQNq8rtWc&feature=related B. Dispositional vs. Situational Attributions 1. Subtractive Rule C. Covariation Principle (Kelley) 1. Three sources of behavior a. Actor b. Object c. Context ,C. Kelly Covariation (cont’d) 2. Sources of information for making attribution a. Consensus b. Consistency c. Distinctiveness 3. Examples ,Kelley’s Cube (e.g., McArthur, 1972) Is Joe the Comedian funny? Is Mary easily amused? Or is tonight a special event? ,D. Sources of Bias in Making Attributions 1. Correspondence bias (Jones 1979) a. Explanations 2. Actor-observer effect (“You fell, I was pushed”) a. Explanations 3. Self-serving bias (“I’m good, you’re lucky”) a. Explanations ,E. Attributions for Success and Failure 1. Dimensions a. Locus of control b. Stability 2. Combinations a. Internal/stable = Ability (your ability at logic & reasoning) b. Internal/unstable = Effort (how many hours you studied the LSAT guide) c. External/stable = Task difficulty (how difficult the test is) d. External/unstable = Luck ,Attributions for Success and Failure Source: Weiner et al., 1972 ,F. Consequences of Success & Failure Attributions Such attributions may affect subsequent achievement behaviors and motivation; future achievement expectancies; persistence at similar tasks; pride or shame felt following success or failure. a. Optimistic attribution style. Negative outcomes attributed external, unstable and specific causes; and positive outcomes to internal, stable, global causes. b. Pessimistic attribution style. Negative outcomes attributed to internal, stable, and global forces. (I’m a bad person); positive events in terms of external, unstable, and specific causes. ,I. Attitudes A. Definitions 1. General: “an attitude is a predisposition to respond to a particular object in a generally favorable or unfavorable way.” 2. Tripartite approaches to attitude a. Affective: + or - evaluation (like/dislike) of object “Cigarette smoke is smelly and disgusting.” b. Behavioral: predisposition to respond or a behavioral tendency towards the object. “I do not and would never smoke.” c. Cognitive: beliefs about object “Smoking causes cancer and emphysema.” ,B. Why attitudes are important Among most “distinctive and indispensable” topics in social psych (Allport 1954). An important indicator of social and normative change. Early social psychological research presumed attitude towards a given object must influence actions towards that object. e.g., political polls, marketing polls, fertility aspirations. The relationship between attitudes and behaviors varies: Strength of relationship contingent on properties of attitude, person, and social context. ,C. How we develop attitudes 1. Instrumental conditioning a. Bennington College study (Newcomb 1943) 2. Classical conditioning 3. Observational learning ,Political Attitudes of Bennington College Women (Newcomb, 1943) ,Presidential Election 1960 ,D. Measurement of Attitudes 1. Direct or self-reported measures a. Single items b. Likert scale c. Semantic differential (Osgood, Suci, Tannenbaum 1975) 2. Indirect methods a.Wrong number technique b. Lost letter technique ,Examples of self-reported attitude scales Semantic differential (evaluation, potency, activity) “Smokers are… Good +3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3 Bad Clean +3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3 Dirty Likert scale: Please indicate whether you strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree, or disagree strongly.” “I believe that cigarette smoking should be banned from all public places.” “Americans should be free to smoke whenever and wherever they like.” ,E. Structure of attitudes Vertical structure Horizontal structure ,Structure of Attitudes Vertical Structure
Views: 112 slide show me
Movie on 8 1 14 at 1 26 AM
 
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Mothers Attributional style
Views: 31 musu coker
Attraction   4 conflict
 
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Social psychology lecture on negative attributional style and the investment model PPT theme - http://www.free-power-point-templates.com/abstraction-powerpoint-template/ Arguing - http://giphy.com/gifs/internet-argument-k5EMYuvqA8C7S
Views: 154 Marika Lamoreaux
What is DEPRESSIVE REALISM? What does DEPRESSIVE REALISM mean? DEPRESSIVE REALISM meaning
 
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What is DEPRESSIVE REALISM? What does DEPRESSIVE REALISM mean? DEPRESSIVE REALISM meaning - DEPRESSIVE REALISM definition - DEPRESSIVE REALISM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Depressive realism is the hypothesis developed by Lauren Alloy and Lyn Yvonne Abramson that depressed individuals make more realistic inferences than do non-depressed individuals. Although depressed individuals are thought to have a negative cognitive bias that results in recurrent, negative automatic thoughts, maladaptive behaviors, and dysfunctional world beliefs, depressive realism argues not only that this negativity may reflect a more accurate appraisal of the world but also that non-depressed individuals' appraisals are positively biased. This theory remains very controversial, as it brings into question the mechanism of change that cognitive behavioral therapy for depression purports to target. While some of the evidence currently supports the plausibility of depressive realism, its effect may be restricted to a select few situations. Evidence for: When participants were asked to press a button and rate the control they perceived they had over whether or not a light turned on, depressed individuals made more accurate ratings of control than non-depressed individuals. Among participants asked to complete a task and rate their performance without any feedback, depressed individuals made more accurate self-ratings than non-depressed individuals. For participants asked to complete a series of tasks, given feedback on their performance after each task, and who self-rated their overall performance after completing all the tasks, depressed individuals were again more likely to give an accurate self-rating than non-depressed individuals. When asked to evaluate their performance both immediately and some time after completing a task, depressed individuals made accurate appraisals both immediately after and after time had passed. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain, depressed patients were shown to be more accurate in their causal attributions of positive and negative social events than non-depressed participants who demonstrated a positive bias. This difference was also reflected in the differential activation of the fronto-temporal network, higher activation for non self-serving attributions in non-depressed participants and for self-serving attributions in depressed patients, and reduced coupling of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex seed region and the limbic areas when depressed patients made self-serving attributions. Evidence against: When asked to rate both their performance and the performance of others, non-depressed individuals demonstrated positive bias when rating themselves but no bias when rating others. Depressed individuals conversely showed no bias when rating themselves but a positive bias when rating others. When assessing participant thoughts in public versus private settings, the thoughts of non-depressed individuals were more optimistic in public than private, while depressed individuals were less optimistic in public. When asked to rate their performance immediately after a task and after some time had passed, depressed individuals were more accurate when they rated themselves immediately after the task but were more negative after time had passed whereas non-depressed individuals were positive immediately after and some time after. Although depressed individuals make accurate judgments about having no control in situations where they in fact have no control, this appraisal also carries over to situations where they do have control, suggesting that the depressed perspective is not more accurate overall. When studied in real-world settings, depressed individuals are actually less accurate and more overconfident in their predictions about the future than their non-depressed peers. Participants' attributional accuracy may also be more related to their overall attributional style rather than the presence and severity of their depressive symptoms.
Views: 1446 The Audiopedia
What is LOCUS OF CONTROL? What does LOCUS OF CONTROL mean? LOCUS OF CONTROL meaning
 
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What is LOCUS OF CONTROL? What does LOCUS OF CONTROL mean? LOCUS OF CONTROL meaning - LOCUS OF CONTROL definition - LOCUS OF CONTROL explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. In personality psychology, locus of control refers to the extent to which individuals believe they can control events affecting them. Understanding of the concept was developed by Julian B. Rotter in 1954, and has since become an aspect of personality studies. A person's "locus" (Latin for "place" or "location") is conceptualized as either internal (the person believes they can control their life) or external (meaning they believe their decisions and life are controlled by environmental factors which they cannot influence, or by chance or fate). Individuals with a strong internal locus of control believe events in their life derive primarily from their own actions: for example, when receiving exam results, people with an internal locus of control tend to praise or blame themselves and their abilities. People with a strong external locus of control tend to praise or blame external factors such as the teacher or the exam. Locus of control generated much research in a variety of areas in psychology. The construct is applicable to such fields as educational psychology, health psychology and clinical psychology. Debate continues whether specific or more global measures of locus of control will prove to be more useful in practical application. Careful distinctions should also be made between locus of control (a concept linked with expectancies about the future) and attributional style (a concept linked with explanations for past outcomes), or between locus of control and concepts such as self-efficacy. Locus of control is one of the four dimensions of core self-evaluations – one's fundamental appraisal of oneself – along with neuroticism, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. The concept of core self-evaluations was first examined by Judge, Locke, and Durham (1997), and since has proven to have the ability to predict several work outcomes, specifically, job satisfaction and job performance. In a follow-up study, Judge et al. (2002) argued the concepts of locus of control, neuroticism, self-efficacy and self-esteem measured the same, single factor.
Views: 4370 The Audiopedia
The one psychological factor that can decide your succes!
 
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Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCbTZvxu78XX9-RE4mmJnwTw?sub_confirmation=1 Link to the test:https://www.psychologytoday.com/tests/personality/locus-control-attributional-style-test The locus of control is a great way to see if you are in control of your life or not. Let's see what it is, how you can test it and how you can improve it! Website: Masteryofgrowth.com Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/masteryofgrowth/?hl=en SOLO ACOUSTIC GUITAR by Jason Shaw http://freemusicarchive.org/music/Jas... Creative Commons — Attribution 3.0 United States— CC BY 3.0 US http://creativecommons.org/licenses/b...
Views: 15 Mastery of Growth

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